This project seeks to address impunity for international crimes perpetrated against Armenians from Nagorno-Karabakh/Artsakh and parts of Armenia by the Azerbaijan government since 2020 to the present.

Backed by rigorous open-source investigation, fact-finding, and legal research and analysis, the project calls for concrete justice and accountability measures to be taken by states and international and regional courts and mechanisms in order to prevent further atrocities, address violations of the rights of Armenian refugees, and promote peace in the region.

Letter to President Biden on Nagorno-Karabakh/Artsakh

Marking the 75th anniversary of the Genocide Convention, Executive Director Prof. Hannah R. Garry and other experts call on the Biden administration to put words to action for accountability for international crimes by Azerbaijan against displaced Armenians from Nagorno-Karabakh.

Concrete measure are needed NOW to prevent further atrocities including: impose sanctions, withhold military aid and establish a fact-finding mission.

Read the Letter to President Biden

Atrocities, Genocide & the Duty to Prevent and to Punish Under International Law

The Situation of Nagorno-Karabakh/Artsakh

Armenians have suffered discrimination and persecution at the hands of Azerbaijan—in Azerbaijan, Armenia and in Nagorno-Karabakh/Artsakh—for decades. In December 2022, Azerbaijan began its restrictions and eventual full blockade of the Lachin Corridor, the only road connecting the 120,000 ethnic Armenians in the territory of Nagorno-Karabakh/Artsakh within the borders of Azerbaijan to Armenia proper.

As of this October 10, 2023 event, most of the Armenian population from Nagorno-Karabakh/Artsakh, over 100,000, 25% of whom were children, were forcibly displaced into Armenia after nearly 300 days of being deprived of life-saving necessities such as food, medicines and fuel, resulting in starvation and death. Even the International Committee of the Red Cross and other humanitarian aid organizations were prevented from accessing the population and, all the while, Azerbaijani officials employed rhetoric normalizing hatred against ethnic Armenians while weaponizing starvation leading to death or forcible displacement from Nagorno-Karabakh/Artsakh.  

Azerbaijan’s aggression with respect to the Lachin Corridor over this timeframe is not isolated and points to a pattern and practice of ethnic cleansing that has gone unchecked for years. Indeed, on Tuesday, September 19, 2023, Azerbaijan launched a military operation against the already-suffering people of Nagorno-Karabakh/Artsakh, with multiple deaths and dozens of injuries within the first 24 hours of the attack. This tragic situation became an overt initiation of wholesale, violent ethnic cleansing, and while ceasefire agreements may have been in place, threats to the safety and security of the ethnic Armenians in this region continued. 

Looking at the situation with respect to attacks against ethnic Armenians as a result of the Lachin Corridor blockade, and recent active military attacks in Nagorno-Karabakh/Artsakh and in Armenia generally, this panel will explored the following key questions drawing from action taken (as of the event date) by States and international actors (or not):

  • What conditions trigger the duty to prevent atrocities, including genocide?  
  • Once triggered, what is the scope of that duty, and what tools, both national and international, can help to identify these obligations as well as lawful steps for addressing a genocidal situation?
Watch the Recording of this Oct 2023 Event


The Tip of the Iceberg: Nagorno-Karabakh/Artsakh Briefing Paper

Our September 2023 briefing paper rightly identified the impending ethnic cleansing and genocide ramping up against ethnic Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh/Artsakh. Tragically, in September 2023, over 100,000 ethnic Armenians were forcibly displaced from Nagorno-Karabakh/Artsakh.

Read the Briefing Paper Watch the Event Discussing the Fact-Finding

Produced in collaboration with University Network for Human Rights, Harvard Law School Advocates for Human Rights, Wesleyan University, and Yale’s Lowenstein Project as a result of two fact-finding trips in Nagorno-Karabakh/Artsakh and four in Armenia between March 2022 and July 2023.

Social Media Content Moderation & International Human Rights Law

The Example of the Nagorno-Karabakh/Artsakh Conflict

Downloadable PDF Available Here

Artsakh Research Database

Our Guide to the Fall 2020 Artsakh/Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict was compiled as an impartial resource to assist anyone conducting research on this conflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia. 

We thank undergraduate students Kristine Aramyan and Martin Makaryan, and law student Ani Setian for their research assistance in preparing this database.

View the Research Database